Francisco J. Falquez Ampuero

Francisco José Falquez Ampuero (Guayaquil, April 17, 1877 – Guayaquil, March 23, 1947) was an Ecuadorian poet, lawyer, diplomat, prosecutor, prose writer and French to Spanish translator. He was appointed Governor of León Province by President Eloy Alfaro (his godfather) and held various other public posts. His rich and extensive literary production includes verse, fiction and journalism. His sonnet collection, Gobelinos (1919), received praise from critics and literati, and is regarded as his best work. He participated in the movements that culminated in the bloody Revolution of November 15, 1922, hence the government of President José Luis Tamayo (1920 – 1924) ordered his exile to Lima, Peru, where he remained until 1923. He then returned to Guayaquil to practice law.

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Miguel Valverde

Miguel Valverde Letamendi (Guayaquil, December 6, 1852 – Rome, April 19, 1920) was an Ecuadorian politician, diplomat, writer, poet, journalist and translator. He is considered a precursor of modernismo in Ecuador. In 1890 he was the Director of the Municipal Library of Guayaquil. In 1915 he published “Libro de versos,” containing a translation of Victor Hugo’s “Religions et religion,” a political tract supporting belief in God but attacking organized religion, which caused a scandal among followers of the church. Due to his political views he was often arrested and many times exiled. He also served the country in various governmental posts during the presidencies of his allies. In 1883, General Eloy Alfaro appointed him Minister of the Interior, War and Foreign Relations of the Governments of Manabí and Esmeraldas. In 1901, General Leonidas Plaza appointed him Minister of the Interior and Police.

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Victor Hugo Escala

Victor Hugo Escala Camacho (Guayaquil, June 29, 1887 – April 30, 1964) was a poet, journalist, historian and diplomat. Along with Enrique Baquerizo Moreno and Manuel J. Calle, in 1907 he plotted an uprising against General Eloy Alfaro, which led to his imprisonment and exile. Upon returning to Guayaquil in 1909, he went to work for the literary section of El Telégrafo newspaper. His first poetry book “Motivos Galantes,” was published in Chile in 1915. After the 1918 armistice, he traveled to Paris where the great poet Ernesto Noboa y Caamaño served as his guide. One night they were invited to lunch at Gonzalo Zaldumbide‘s house, and the latter urged him to write. The outcome was “Kaleidoscope,” (1922) a travel journal with prints and landscapes of Europe and the East.

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Emilio Gallegos del Campo

Emilio Gallegos del Campo (Guayaquil, September 20, 1875 – May 15, 1914) was a poet, playwright, journalist and diplomat. In 1898 General Eloy Alfaro, who was a friend of his family and called him “Emilito,” appointed him Consul of Ecuador in London, a post which he held until 1901. In Europe, he was decorated by the French government with the Legion of Honor. Together with his brother, he founded several newspapers, including “América Modernista,” which published poets of the modernismo movement. His brother was the poet Joaquín Gallegos Del Campo whose son was the celebrated novelist Joaquin Gallegos Lara.

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Adolfo Hidalgo Nevares

Adolfo Hidalgo Nevares, sometimes spelled Nevarez, (Guayaquil, March 18, 1891 – Quito, 1934) was a doctor, writer and poet. Under the pseudonym Máximo de Bretal he wrote articles for El Guante magazine on topics such as politics, literature and poetry. He also wrote for El Telégrafo of Guayaquil and El Universitario of Quito. In 1920 he was appointed Deputy of Guayas. In 1925 he became a professor at the University of Guayaquil’s new Dentistry and Veterinary schools, and in 1926 he was named Minister of Public Education. He led a bohemian life and had an on and off again addiction to morphine which he sometimes used in the company of some of the members of the Decapitated Generation, a group of young Ecuadorian poets who died young by suicide. He too died by suicide in 1934, at the age of 43.

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Nicolás Augusto González

Nicolás Augusto González Tola, also N.A. González (Guayaquil, April 14, 1858 – Buenos Aires, Argentina, January 18, 1918) was an Ecuadorian writer, playwright, novelist, journalist, poet, historian and diplomat. His plays in verse are among his best known works, which include, “Hojas secas,” “Entre el amor y el honor,” and “Amor y Patria,” which he co-wrote with Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno (President of Ecuador from 1916-1920). Perhaps his most important and controversial work is, “Cuestión Histórica, el Asesinato del Gran Mariscal Ayacucho,” (written between 1887-1889), wherein he accused General Juan José Flores of being behind the assassination of Antonio José de Sucre, which in turn unleashed hatred and persecution from Flores’ son Antonio Flores Jijón (President of Ecuador from 1888-1892). Due to his political views and polemic writing he was exiled to other countries, such as Peru, Colombia, Guatemala and Spain. From 1908-1913 he lived in Spain as a diplomat, and published there his poetry book, “Humo y cenizas” (1908) and his novel “La Llaga” (1908). He returned to Guayaquil in 1917 where a special committee chaired by José Luis Tamayo (President of Ecuador from 1920-1924) awarded him the “Golden Lyre”.

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Miguel Ángel Granado Guarnizo

Miguel Ángel Granado Guarnizo, aka M.A. Granado Guarnizo (Guayaquil, 1895-1955) was an Ecuadorian modernist poet, playwright and literary critic. The majority of his poems were published between 1912-1916 in literary magazines such “Letras” and “El Telegrafo Literario”, which, along with M.E. Castillo y Castillo and J. A. Falconí Villagómez, he founded, directed and edited. His best known play is “El Hermano Cándido” (1919). As a literary critic, in 1920 he published an important critical essay on his friend Medardo Ángel Silva’s poetry book, “El árbol del bien y del mal.” A few critics have grouped him in the so-called “Decapitated Generation,” a group of Ecuadorian poets with premature, tragic endings. He stopped publishing his works in 1926, the year in which he was diagnosed with a mental illness, due to which he spent the rest of his life admitted to a psychiatric hospital. He was the brother of the poet Carlos F. Granado Guarnizo.

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José Antonio Falconí Villagómez

José Antonio Falconí Villagómez, aka Jose A. Falconí Villagómez or J.A. Falconí Villagómez, (Guayaquil, May 26, 1894 – Guayaquil, 1967) was an Ecuadorian poet, literary critic, translator, and medical doctor. In 1910 he began publishing his poems in the magazine El Guante, and by 1913 in El Telégrafo. In 1916 he founded the magazine Renacimiento, in which he published his poem, “Ruth adora a los cisnes.” He was greatly influenced by the French Symbolists of his time and was a champion of the avant-garde in poetry. In 1921 he published, “Arte Poética nº 2,” a dadaist poem which introduced the European avant-garde into Ecuadorian letters. In 1953 he was designated a Member of the House of Ecuadorian Culture. In 1964 he was decorated with the National Order of Merit, and in 1965 the city of Guayaquil conferred on him the Gold Medal of Literary Merit.

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José Joaquín Pino de Ycaza

José Joaquín Pino de Ycaza (Guayaquil, January 30, 1902 – Guayaquil, February 25, 1959) was an Ecuadorian poet, educator, historian and politician. Since as early as 14 years old he began publishing his poems in national literary magazines such as Patria and Helios, and later also in Juventud (Quito) and Proteos (Guayaquil). He directed the magazine Hermes, which published the most prominent early 20th century poets of Ecuador, such as Wenceslao Pareja, Miguel E. Neira, José Antonio Falconí, and his friend Medardo Angel Silva. In 1984 the Guayas branch of the House of Ecuadorian Culture published a collection of his poems in a small book entitled “Sándalo.”

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Camilo Destruge

Camilo Destruge Illingworth (Guayaquil, October 20, 1863 – February 26, 1929) was an Ecuadorian historian, journalist and chronicler. In 1879 he founded the industrial museum known today as the Municipal Museum of Guayaquil, and directed it for 17 years. He authored numerous historical episodes, biographies and texts, such as La entrevista de Bolívar y San Martín (1918). He wrote for various newspapers, such as El Telégrafo, Diario de Avisos, Los Andes, Guayaquil Artístico, and La Nación. He also created and operated newspapers, held public office, was a volunteer firefighter and was a primary school teacher. He was a member of the National Academy of History and also received a decoration from the government of Venezuela. He was declared “Emeritus Chronicler of Guayaquil.” An institution of historical studies, a school, and a street bear his name in Guayaquil.

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Víctor Manuel Rendón

Víctor Manuel Rendón Pérez (Guayaquil, December 5, 1859 – Guayaquil, October 9, 1940) was an Ecuadorian writer, poet, novelist, playwright, biographer, translator, doctor, diplomat, pianist and composer. He wrote the novel “Lorenzo Cilda” in 1906 in French. His own Spanish translation of the book got him accepted to the Ecuadorian Academy of Language in 1921. The book also earned him a Gold Medal from L’Académie française on April 3, 1925. He translated many works from Spanish to French, including a 1904 translation of the poetry of Jose Joaquin de Olmedo. He also wrote a biography about Olmedo in French titled: Olmedo homme d’ etat et poete americain, chantre de Bolívar. He spoke 4 languages, and wrote over 40 books in Spanish and French, which were published in France, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Portugal and Ecuador. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1935 by Celiano Monge, the secretary of the Ecuadorian Academy of Language, but did not win. On two separate occasions he rejected the Presidential nomination of Ecuador.

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Wenceslao Pareja

Dr. Wenceslao Pareja y Pareja (Guayaquil, September 1, 1880 – Quito, February 26, 1947) was an Ecuadorian doctor, medical researcher, writer and poet. As a doctor, he was one of the world’s leading experts on yellow fever, and was nominated for a Nobel Prize in Science for his research work with Hideyo Noguchi. Pareja published 4 books of poems. His 1912 polemic poem “Exodo,” which was published in El Guante magazine, is among the first poems to introduce modernismo in Ecuador. Pareja’s poem “La voz del río” from his first book, Voces Lejanas y otros poemas (1915), best exemplifies modernismo in his poems.

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Abel Romeo Castillo

Abel Romeo Castillo y Castillo (Guayaquil, January, 22 1904 – Guayaquil, November 11, 1996) was an Ecuadorian writer, historian, biographer, journalist and poet. He was the son of José Abel Castillo Albornoz, the former owner of the newspaper El Telégrafo. Castillo earned a doctoral degree in history in 1931 from the Central University of Madrid, Spain. Among his more notable books are his biographical works on Medardo Ángel Silva, Aurora Estrada i Ayala and José Joaquín de Olmedo, to name a few. His poems “Romance de mi destino” and “Romance criollo de la niña guayaquileña,” were turned into popular pasillo songs. Castillo was one of the founders of the Society of Independent Artists and Writers, and of the Guayas branch of the House of Ecuadorian Culture. Castillo was a member of the Ecuadorian Academies of Language and History.

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José Alfredo Llerena

José Alfredo Llerena (Guayaquil, 1912—Quito, 1977) was an Ecuadorian poet, journalist, fiction writer, art critic and essayist. He is considered one of the leading cultivators and continuators of the modernist movement in Ecuador, and was a member of the literary group “the poets of Elan.” His most notable poetry book is Agonía y paisaje del caballo (1934), which contains 18 of the author’s poems. He also wrote a novel entitled Oleaje en la tierra (1955), and a book of short stories entitled Segunda vida de una santa (1953). His nonfiction books are: Aspectos de la fe artística (1938) and Ecuador, perfil de su progreso (1960).

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