Glossary of Jorge Icaza’s Huasipungo

Bernard M. Dulsey translated Jorge Icaza‘s most famous novel Huaspingo (1934) as “The Villagers” in 1964 (Southern Illinois University Press). This is the glossary containing the definitions of Quechua and Spanish words contained in the book.

achachayan exclamation expressing sensation of cold
amoowner; used by servants to refer to their master. The Indian often uses amu or amitu for amo.
aríthe Indian word for yes.
arrarrayan exclamation expressing a burning sensation.
arrayána hardwood; a variety of the myrtle tree.
aythe standard Spanish expression for pain, grief or surprise.
beataa very religious woman; used very often of one who has a false piety; hence a hypocrite.
bonitogood, beautiful; the Indian uses bonitu.
cacavulgar name for excrement.
canela negraa hardwood.
carajoexclamation equivalent to goddam or sonofabitch.
chacacramaan Indian who watches the fields at night.
chasquibaythe lamentations of the family and close relatives before the cadaver.
chichaan alcoholic drink usually made of fermented corn.
chiguaguaa figure made of fireworks; usually in shape of a doll or of a human being.
chilcaa resinous bush with many straight thin branches with leaves like those of a willow tree. The leaves are used for medicical purposes.
choloperson of mixed Indian and white blood.
chugchithe gleanings gathered in the fields after the crop has been harvested.
comadrea very good friend, a close neighbor. (This word used only for women; the corresponding word for men is compadre.
creciente cuichi (or Cuichi)an evil spirit spirit who inhabits the hills or ravines.
Cunshinickname for Spanish Concepción.
curaa parish priest.
curandero -aa quack doctor; in general, any person practicing medicine without having studied it.
Dios mio!heavens! (literally, my God!)
frailejonesplants with golden yellow flowers; they produce a resinous substance used in rural medicine.
gaan expression used just to give emphasis to a phrase.
guaguaIndian word for a child, especially a baby not yet weaned.
guarapothe fermented juice of the sugar cane. A drink often used by the Indians to achieve intoxication.
huasicamaan Indian caretaker of the manor house.
huasipungoa parcel of land which the owner of the hacienda grants an Indian family in return for their daily labor. The Indian occupants wrests what he can from this piece of land and erects his miserable hovel on it.
huasipunguerothe Indian who lives on the huasipungo and is tied to any debt that has accrued on it.
huilmoa hardwood.
jachimayshaythe Indian rite of bathing the dead to facilitate the corpse’s voyage on to eternity.
juntaa meeting of persons to discuss a certain issue.
longo, -aan Indian child or adolescent.
longuito, -adominutive of longo; often used to show affection.
mayordomoan hacienda employee in charge of the workmen and their labor.
mingaa collective labor often done by an entire village for no pay except the abundant food and plenty of at least one alcoholic beverage. Dates from Inca days.
minguero, -aone who works on a minga.
motilóna hardwood.
niñain Spanish a girl or young woman. Indians use this word sometimes to refer to, or to show respect for any white woman.
ñucanchic huasipungothe first word means “our”; thus the entire phrase may be freely translated as “Let’s fight for our huasipungos.”
paisanoa rustic; often used as “hick.”
panzaa hardwood.
páramohigh, and cold, plateau.
pasilloa popular dance melody.
patrón, -aboss, master; patrona is feminine equivalent.
patrón grande, su merceda lofty phrase denoting the elegant almost omnipotent position of the patrón vis-à-vis the Indians who work for him.
patroncitudiminutive of patrón, often showing humility on the part of the Indian toward his master.
péon -(es)peasant(s).
pesa common contraction of the Spanish pues. Usually means “well,” “now then,” etc.
pongoan Indian who works around the manor house without pay.
priostein Ecuador, the one who asks for, or accepts the financial responsibility for a religious feast day.
roscaa scornful word for “Indian.”
runaan Indian.
sanjuanitoan Indian song and dance.
shunguiticodiminutive of shungo, affectionately used.
socorrosa yearly handout by the patrón which, together with the huasipungo and the raya-a nominal daily wage-make up the entire payment the Indian receives for his labor.
sorochealtitude sickness.
taitapappa, daddy. Used especially by the Indians and other rural inhabitants in the Andean regions.
Taita, Taita DiosGod, Almighty Father
taiticudiminutive of taita. Usually shows more affection or humility than taita.
taitiquitoa diminutive of taiticu! (more humble than taiticu).
tapiala wall usually enclosing country properties or homes.
uuuyan exclamation.
vivahoorah! hoorah for!
From Bernard Dulsey’s 1964 English translation of Jorge Icaza’s Husipungo: “The Villagers.”

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